Friday, December 14, 2012

شنبه15 دسامبر تئوری اجتماعی مارکس

گفتمان سیاسی اجتماعی

شنبه15 دسامبر

کلاس  چهارم

از سری کلاسهای تئوری های کلاسیک جامعه شناسی

تئوری اجتماعی مارکس

Marxian Social Theory

فایلهای صوتی


Marxian  Social Theory



Materialist concept of history economics as sociological theory
Epistemology: Social theory should include:
-The making of society, not completions of it
-Nexus of social relations
-Cultural conditioning -Powerful elites

Born on May 5, 1818 in Trier, Germany

Died on March 14, 1883 in London, England
Studied Jurisprudence in Bonn and later Berlin, with a Ph.D. in 1841 (when he was 23)

Sent to exile from Germany, France, Belgium, France, Germany again, France and ended up living in London for the rest of his life, 1849-1883
Well-known work:

The Poverty of Philosophy, 1847 Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848 The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, 1852 A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, 1859 Capital, started volume one in 1867, volumes two and three edited by Engels and finished by 1894
Intellectual Influences:
Georg Hegel, August Comte, and Ludwig Feuerbach
German Idealism’s Phenomenonalism: Is human knowledge based on human impressions (Hume), or is reality independent of human experience (Kant)?
David Hume: Ideas extend no further than human experience

Immanuel Kant: phenomenon/noumenon dichotomy: we reason beyond experience, refuting human mind not tabula rasa—this is where new ideas come from
Georg Hegel: Existence of a universal mind or spirit (geist), human mind is a process involving self-expression, self-actualization, self-knowledge

Dialectics: Human mind develops by grasping the interplay between potential opposites, which results in a third alternative or “unity of opposites” involving three concepts: a) change, b) motion, and c) process, in an almost circular motion


Marx’s Critique of Hegel:
Marx and religion
Marx and the state
Marx and material labor vs. Hegel’s human spirit
Marx and political economy

Marx and human agency “philosophers have thus far interpreted the world in various ways, the point however, is to change it”
Marx and alienation: production, process of production, relations of production, consumption

Marx’s political economy as a sociological critique: People treat each other and themselves as things, while capital becomes the real subject governing their lives.

Development of capitalism and alienated labo

General thesis: Infrastructure (productive forces, relations of production) and Superstructure (culture)

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